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In areas where humans and wildlife share the same landscape, wild animals tend to move out of their natural habitats in search of food and water, and come into conflict with humans that pose threat to both wild animals and humans. On the other hand, dependency of local communities on forest resources exposes them to conflict. Conflicts resulting from wide ranging animals such as elephants in the process of their movement and tendency of big carnivores such as tigers and snow leopards to prey on domestic animals continually leads to crop and livestock depredation. Local communities undergo livelihood loss and threat to personal safety and this seemingly inevitable occurrence is more so of conflict when humans are killed and injured. Human injury, fatalities and economic loss due to wildlife often lead to undermining public support for conservation, and increasing hostility towards wild animals resulting in retaliatory actions. It is a paradoxical condition which necessitates promoting co-existence between wild animals and human communities.

Promoting human-wildlife co-existence is a challenging task which requires careful balance between park management, community behavior and appropriate technological interventions. Communities living in areas where human-wildlife conflicts are high, are less likely to inclined to support conservation unless efforts are made to reconcile their sentiments.  NTNC is working to strengthen human-wildlife co-existence among the communities living in and around protected areas, and other affected areas through technological interventions, nature-based solutions, community awareness and relief support. Predator-proof corals, non-lethal carnivore deterrents, electric fences, alternative crops and livelihood options have proven to be effective in in reducing livestock loss and human casualties, eventually improving human-wildlife co-existence. As a successful example, installation of high-tech power fence in Jhapa district has led to significant (up to 98%) reduction in crop loss, making this offset fence system a proven technology to reduce human-elephant conflict. NTNC manages a dedicated Human-Wildlife Conflict Relief Fund for the families of wildlife victims that has been helpful in providing immediate relief. Going further, NTNC will continue to engage with the local communities to find better ways to manage human-wildlife conflicts, generate lessons and knowledge and explore new ways to strengthen human-wildlife co-existence in Nepal.