The Asiatic wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee), locally known as the Arna is an endangered species restricted to South Asia and Southeast Asia. Wild water buffaloes are ancestors of the domestic buffaloes believed to have been domesticated 6000-7000 years ago in India and China. This wild type of buffaloes is larger than the domestic breed, nearly 3 meters long and 2 meters tall and weighing up to 1200 kg; females are about two-thirds of the size. Chiefly a grazer, feeding in the morning and evenings, and sheltering in forest cover or submerging in wallows midday, wild water buffaloes are highly dependent on availability of water preferring low lying alluvial grasslands and their surroundings. Until 2017, Nepal's only remaining population survived in the floodplains of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve which were later reintroduced in its former range in Chitwan National Park to create an additional population. Although wild water buffalo population in the reserve has increased several folds to 432 from a low of 63 in 1973, frequent high flooding destroying prime habitats and lack of security measures to overcome the risk to hybridization and disease transmission from domestic cattle remain as challenges in conserving this species. The reestablished population in Chitwan National Park now harbors 15 individuals and shows positive signs of establishing a viable sub-population with the recent birth of three calves. Giving importance to sustaining the wild water buffalo population, NTNC engages in their translocation, supports in their monitoring, and managing the reintroduced population.